Nautical paper

Why is a magnetic compass required in the age of electronic navigation? Users should be aware that ENA have limitations and have been known to provide erroneous information.

Nautical paper

Nautical Map Navigation Marine Navigation Terms Nautical Charts Marine Chartplotters Basic navigation at sea and parts of a nautical chart marine navigation maps and nav basics parts of a nautical chart and boat navigation 1 for sailing and sailboat.

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It requires an understanding of only a few navigation basics to begin navigating at sea such as the meaning of basic nautical terms such as position, direction, distance, and depth to apply them to Nautical paper navigation.

This basic marine navigation tutorial will guide you on how to navigate at sea with charts and increase your navigational skills Nautical Map Navigation Latitude and Longitude Any position on the earth can be described by its latitude and longitude which are the lines of an imaginary [ grid ] laid on the earth's surface.

Lines that run north to south, between the North and South Poles, are known as meridians of longitude. The latitude and longitude scales are printed at the edge of the nautical map with grid lines crossing them allowing positions to be measured and plotted.

Direction When coastal sailing, it easier to give a position by referring to a fixed sea or landmark using direction and distance than using latitude and longitude. Direction is measured clockwise as an angle relative to north. Describing the direction of an object in relation to the [ boat's position ]or between two objects, is done by taking a bearing the direction in which the boat is sailing, and known as a heading.

North Defining a direction is relative to north but "north" can have three interpretations. The divergence between magnetic and true north is known as variation, altering slightly each year with the movement of the magnetic North Pole.

Navigation requires converting between [ true, magnetic, and compass north ]. Distance and Speed The nautical mile is the unit of distance used at sea and defined as [ one minute 1' of latitude ]. Because the earth is not a perfect sphere, the actual length of a nautical mile varies. It is longer at the poles and shorter at the equator but standardized to m or ft.

At sea, the unit of speed is the knot and defined as one nautical mile per hour. Depth and Height Depth and height at sea is measured in metres. Depth as shown on a nautical map is relative to a fixed datum and is usually the Lowest Astronomical Tide or [ LAT ] being the lowest water level ever expected.

The water depth is higher than shown because of the height of tide.

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The datum from which heights are measured depends on the type of object measured. Nautical Navigation Terms A variety of nautical navigation terms are used in recording information on a nautical map such as bearings, headings, and other important map navigation data.

There is universal recognition of these nautical navigation terms, which helps in eliminating the risk of misunderstanding. A knowledge and understanding of these nautical navigation terms are needed to perform marine navigation successfully.

One knot is one nautical mile per hour. Metres are divided into decimetres; 7. Parts of a fathom are shown in feet, e.

Maritime Navigation Charts Maritime navigation charts are essential to navigating at sea and are produced and supplied by the various hydrographic agencies.

Originally produced for professional sea-goers, many hydrographic agencies today produce maritime navigation charts that are based on the official data but tailored to suit yachting requirements. Available in folios that cover most popular sailing areas, these maritime navigation charts also include harbour plans and ocean navigation chart information.

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Projection Being a representation of a curved surface on a flat sheet of paper, the problem is of how to best embody or project the curve of the earth while minimizing distortion of the land mass shape and size.

The [ Mercator projection ] is the popular form found on maritime navigation charts where the parallels of latitude are drawn further apart towards the poles and the meridians of longitude are drawn parallel and equidistant. The [ Gnomonic projection ] method on other maritime navigation charts is used for small-scale ocean passage charts or very large-scale harbour navigation charts.

Small-scale gnomonic nautical maps have the meridians converge at the poles, while on large-scale gnomonic nautical maps, the area is small and the meridians appear to be parallel. The projection type, Mercator or Gnomonic, used on a particular maritime navigation chart is shown close to the title.

Nautical Chart Scale Various scaled nautical charts are available. Small-scale nautical charts cover whole seas or oceans and are used for planning and plotting positions on long passages. Medium-scale nautical charts are usually cover sections of coastline and contain information of coastal and offshore features around the departure and destination points.

Large-scale nautical charts cover small areas in greater detail and are essential when entering an unfamiliar harbour or navigating a intricate stretch of water.

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The nautical chart scale along with other details, such as the units used and the last correction date are shown close to its title. Nautical Chart Symbols Nautical charts use a range of [ chart symbols ] depicting important features and potential hazards.

Have a common knowledge of navigation chart symbols as well as keep a reference guide on board. Chart Corrections Maritime navigation charts are produced from information obtained from surveys conducted at regular intervals and the frequency is dependent on the importance of the area to shipping.Specializing in scripture verses and Christian themed images.

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