PROSPECTS Bottled water performs well as focus shifts from hydration to functional benefits Bottled water has performed well in terms of volume and value as consumers look for clean and pure water. Furthermore, millennials do not live in the same place for long periods of time and prefer consuming bottled water rather than installing water purifiers in every residence.
China[ edit ] Ministry of Environmental Protection[ edit ] The Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People's Republic of China is the nation's environmental protection department charged with the task of protecting China's air, water, and land from pollution and contamination.
Directly under the State Council, it is empowered and required by law to implement environmental policies and enforce environmental laws and regulations. Complementing its regulatory role, it funds and organizes research and development.
Regulatory challenges and debates[ edit ] In latea survey was carried out by China Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development to assess the water quality of urban supplies in China's cities, which revealed that "at least 1," water treatment plants out of more than 4, plants surveyed at the county level and above failed to comply with government requirements.
The survey results were never formally released to the public, but inChina's Century Weekly published Global and china bottled water industry leaked survey data. China's new drinking water standards involve indicators.
The department in charge of local water and the health administration department will enter into a discussion to determine results for more than 60 of the new measures; hence it is not required to test the water using every indicator.
The frequency of water quality inspections at water treatment plants is twice yearly. As a national research organization, it undertakes and promotes applied and basic research in different disciplines of water sector. The Ministry has created 24 Water Quality Testing Laboratories across Pakistan, developed and commercialized water quality test kits, water filters, water disinfection tablets and drinking water treatment sachets, conducted training for 2, professionals of water supply agencies and surveyed 10, water supply schemes out of a grand total of 12, schemes.
Department of Homeland Security is a cabinet department of the United States federal government, created in response to the September 11 attacks, and with the primary responsibilities of protecting the United States of America and U. The Homeland Security Presidential Directive 7 designates the Environmental Protection Agency as the sector-specific agency for the water sector's critical infrastructure protection activities.
All Environmental Protection Agency activities related to water security are carried out in consultation with the Department of Homeland Security.
Possible threats to water quality include contamination with deadly agents, such as cyanide,  and physical attacks like the release of toxic gaseous chemicals. Environmental Protection Agency EPA issues regulations under each law specifying analytical test methods. EPA' s annual Regulatory Agenda sets a schedule for specific objectives on improving its oversight of water testing.
Water samples must be analyzed using EPA-approved testing methods, by laboratories that are certified by EPA or a state agency. The revised rule highlights the frequency and timing of microbial testing by water systems based on population served, system type, and source water type.
It also places a legal limit on the level for Escherichia coli.
Potential health threats must be disclosed to EPA or the appropriate state agency, and public notification is required in some circumstances. The facilities covered include sewage treatment plants, industrial and commercial plants, military bases and other facilities.
Most permittees are required to regularly collect wastewater samples and analyze them for compliance with permit requirements, and report the results either to EPA or the state agency.
Approved published methods must be used when testing to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. Regulatory challenges and debates[ edit ] Hydraulic fracturing[ edit ] The Energy Policy Act of created a loophole that exempts companies drilling for natural gas from disclosing the chemicals involved in fracturing operations that would normally be required under federal clean water laws.
The loophole is commonly known as the "Halliburton loophole" because Dick Cheney, the former chief executive officer of Halliburton, was reportedly instrumental in its passage.
In addition, there may be additional regulations for hydraulic fracturing by state oil and gas agencies. States or EPA have the authority under the Clean Water Act to regulate discharge of produced waters from hydraulic fracturing operations. EPA stated that the water supply contained at least 10 compounds known to be used in fracking fluids.
The findings in the report contradicted arguments by the drilling industry on the safety of the fracturing process, such as the hydrologic pressure that naturally forces fluids downwards instead of upwards.
EPA also commented that the pollution from 33 abandoned oil and gas waste pits were responsible for some degree of minor groundwater pollution in the vicinity. Companies will be required to conduct water testing at least 90 days prior to and up to days after hydraulically fracturing a well, which includes analysis of pH, alkalinity, total dissolved solids, and total petroleum hydrocarbons.Global study finds microplastics in 93% of bottled water, but little known about effect on humans Findings suggest there are twice the amount of microplastics in bottled water compared to tap.
In fact, it still is -- at least in nations blessed with plentiful clean tap water like the U.S. -- but that doesn't stop the world from spending over $ billion on bottled water a .
Food and Beverage Industry market research reports provide information and an Industry Overview for Food and Beverages. In fact, it still is -- at least in nations blessed with plentiful clean tap water like the U.S.
-- but that doesn't stop the world from spending over $ billion on bottled water a year. This. Bottled Water in China: The prolonged hot summer in underpinned dynamic growth of bottled water in China, benefiting carbonated and still bottled.
It's the new battle in the bush. On one side is Australia's $million-a-year bottled water industry and its suppliers, on the other, rural residents who .