Department of Agriculture Overview The U.
Dealers and exhibitors shall make and retain for such reasonable period of time as the Secretary may prescribe, such records with respect to the purchase, sale, transportation, identification, and previous ownership of animals as the Secretary may prescribe.
At the request of the Secretary, any regulatory agency of the Federal Government which requires records to be maintained by intermediate handlers and carriers with respect to the transportation, receiving, handling, and delivery of animals on forms prescribed by the agency, shall require there to be included in such forms, and intermediate handlers and carriers shall include in such forms, such information as the Secretary may require for the effective administration of this Act.
Such information shall be retained for such reasonable period of time as the Secretary may prescribe. If regulatory agencies of the Federal Government do not prescribe requirements for any such forms, intermediate handlers and carriers shall make and retain for such reasonable period as the Secretary may prescribe such records with respect to the transportation, receiving, handling, and delivery of animals as the Secretary may prescribe.
Such records shall be made available at all reasonable times for inspection and copying by the Secretary.
While the language of the AWA seems to mandate strict caretaking and recordkeeping requirements, it becomes ineffective without enforcement.
As stated, currently the only enforceable penalty under the AWA is monetary fines. Due to overworked inspectors and enforcers, and with only small monetary fines to deter conduct that is far more profitable to continue than not, the AWA is as ineffectual as it is idealistic.
Unfortunately for circus animals, as of right now, the AWA seems to speak softly and carry a small stick. Endangered Species Act ESA The cast of circus animals in large circuses may include one or more species of endangered animals, such as elephants or tigers. Thus, the issue arises as to when the overarching federal law on the taking of endangered species, the ESA, comes into play.
Circus on behalf of a former Ringling Bros. Basically, the plaintiffs may have been correct, but could not procedurally bring their claim because of deficiencies with their case. Since the court found that the plaintiffs lacked standing, it did not reach a decision on the merits of the case — the mistreatment and ESA claims.
All import, export and other introduction of a species covered by CITES has to be authorized through a licensing system. CITES requires each party to the Convention to designate one or more authorities to administer the licensing system, and one or more scientific authorities to advise on the effects of trade on the species.
However, the Lacey Act specifically exempts circuses from regulation and defers to their regulation under the AWA. State Laws Despite the mistreatment of animals in many circuses, state anti-cruelty laws do not always cover these animals.
In 23 states, [ 96 ] circuses are specifically exempted from these provisions. However, where states do have such laws on the books, the laws vary widely from state to state. Some state laws only mention circuses or circus animals just to say that they are excluded from animal anti-cruelty laws that would otherwise protect those animals.
Alaska Alaska has a law that requires circuses to obtain a permit to possess, import or export an elephant for use in a circus and requires that elephants in circuses be maintained in humane conditions. Arizona Arizona statute A. Also, California prohibits the taking of certain animals for use in the circus.Heroic men, heroic women, and animals.
See also the section The courage of the bullfighters, which includes material on the courage of the rock climbers and mountaineers, including the remarkable achievements of the free climber Alex Honnold..
This is a very varied section, like some other sections of the page. So much writing in support of bullfighting is suffocating in its exclusion of the. Archives and past articles from the Philadelphia Inquirer, Philadelphia Daily News, and caninariojana.com And The Kids is a Massachusetts-based pop quartet that manages to conjure chunky indie rock, blissful new wave, chamber folk, jarring avant-garde, and brawny classic rock.
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Summary: This paper provides a detailed analysis of the federal, state, and international laws that affect circus animals. It also focuses specific attention on three species (primates, elephants, and big cats) that are a special concern for circuses.